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Tropical race 4


Tropical race 4
Credit: ABGC
Credit: ABGC

Tropical race 4 (TR4) is the name given to the strain of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) that causes Fusarium wilt (aka Panama disease) in Cavendish cultivars. The term TR4 was coined to distinguish this race 4 strain from the ones that affect Cavendish cultivars only in the presence of predisposing factors such as low temperatures. The latter are known as subtropical race 4 (STR4). TR4 is more specifically associated with a particular vegetative compatibility group called VCG 01213, although other VCGs have also been reported to cause Fusarium wilt in Cavendish cultivars in the absence of predisposing factors[1]. It has spread to most banana-producing countries in Asia and in 2013 was reported to be in Mozambique[2].

Like the other Foc strains, TR4 originated in Asia[3]. It did not evolve from a strain that overcame the resistance of Cavendish cultivars[4]. It should be noted that TR4 has a wider host range than just Cavendish cultivars. In addition to hitherto unaffected cultivars, such as 'Lakatan' and 'Pisang mas', it also causes disease in groups of cultivars susceptible to races 1 and 2, such as Gros Michel, Silk, Pome and Bluggoe.

Like all other soil-dwelling Foc strains, TR4 cannot be controlled using fungicides and cannot be eradicated from soil using fumigants. The capacity of TR4 to survive decades in the soil, along with its lethal impact and wide host range, are among the main reasons it was ranked as the greatest threat to banana production[5]. To avoid further losses to the pathogen, the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has called on banana-producing countries to step up monitoring and reporting, and to contain suspected incursions to prevent the fungus from getting established[6].

Distribution

In Taiwan, symptoms of Fusarium wilt on Cavendish cultivars were first observed in 1967[7]. In 1972, the results of pathogenicity tests suggested that the isolates belonged to race 1[8], but isolates tested in 1977 in Taiwan were designated as race 4[7]. In the late 1980s, isolates from Taiwan were the first ones to be designated VCG 01213[9]. The vulnerability of Cavendish cultivars to  what would become known asTR4 was underscored in the early 1990s, when Fusarium wilt decimated newly established plantations of Cavendish bananas in Indonesia and Malaysia[9].

By the end of the 2000s, TR4 had been found in Taiwan, Malaysia[10], Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Halmahera, Kalimantan[11] on the island of Borneo, and Papua Province[12] on the island of New Guinea), mainland China (Guangdong[13], Hainan[14], Guangxi, Fujian and Yunnan), the Philippines' island of Mindanao[15] and Australia (Northern Territory[16]).

Since then, the number of first records has increased exponentially. Although not formally published, TR4 seems to have been in Oman since at least 2012[17][18][19]. At the same time, it was also present in the Katihar and Purnea districts of Bihar in India, though not formally published[20]. TR4 has since spread to the states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat[21].

In 2013, TR4 was reported to be in Jordan, the first official report of TR4 outside the Southeast Asia-Pacific region[22]. A 2014 survey revealed another infected area north of the original outbreak[23].

At the end of 2013, TR4 was also reported to be in Africa, where it was confirmed to be in an export banana plantation located in northern Mozambique[2]. It was later found in a second plantation, also in Nampula province[24]. In 2018, a senior government official said that TR4 had been identified further north in the Cabo Delgado province[25].

In 2015, it was reported to be in Lebanon and Pakistan[26][27], as well as Queensland in Australia[28]. An analysis of isolates from Pakistan and the Phillipines showed that they were closely related[29]. The incursion in Lebanon has also been shown to be associated with the one in Jordan[29].

In 2016, TR4 was found in two farms in Israel[30]. After taking measures to contain the two outbreaks, the National Plant Protection Organization declared in 2018 that the fungal strain had been eradicated from Israel[31]. The declaration drew comments that TR4 had been contained rather than eradicated[32].

In 2017, it was reported in Laos[33] and Vietnam[34].

In 2018, it was confirmed to have spread to Myanmar[29]. The analysis of isolates from Laos, Vietnam and Myanmar provided evidence that the particular TR4 strain in these countries was likely introduced from China[29].

Host range

In addition to Cavendish cultivars, TR4 affects cultivars susceptible to races 1 and 2 as well as hitherto unaffected cultivars such as, 'Barangan' (Lakatan subgroup, AAA genome group)[11] and 'Pisang Mas'. The often cited figure that TR4 affects cultivars that account for more than 80% of the world's banana production[35] assumed that Plantains were also susceptible. At the time, however, the only Plantain-like material that had been evaluated against TR4 were hybrids produced by breeders[36]. The reaction of the Plantains domesticated in Africa, along with another group of locally domesticated bananas, the East African highland bananas (EAHB), was not known. The first field screening of these two subgroups was conducted in 2011-2012 in the Philippines using accessions from the ITC genebank. Most of the accessions tested were slightly to moderately susceptible[37]. Except for the 'Obubit Ntanga' Plantain accession that was still symptom-free after 10 months (a relatively short time given the perennial nature of most banana production), the disease incidence was below 5%. with the exception of 'Ibwi', for which the disease incidence was 29%. However, the ploidy of the ITC accession called Ibwi (2x/3x[38]) suggests that the material tested might not be the EAHB cultivar  'Ibwi'.

The FHIA improvement programme has produced hybrids that are resistant to races 1 and 4, while the Taiwan Banana Research Institute (TBRI) has released Giant Cavendish tissue-culture variants (GCTCV) that are partially resistant to TR4[39]. In field trials conducted in China, FHIA-01, FHIA-02, FHIA-18, FHIA-25, Pisang Jari Buaya, Rose (AA), and to a lesser extent GCTCV-119 and FHIA-03, have shown resistance to TR4[40]. In a field trial conducted in the Philippines, only 1% of the GCTCV-219 plants exhibited symptoms of Fusarium wilt in the second crop cycle, whereas none of plants of the Cardava cultivar (Saba subgroup) did[41].

Symptoms and diagnosis

The symptoms of a TR4 infection are the same as those caused by any other Foc strains (see symptoms of Fusarium wilt).

However, the wide host range of TR4 makes it difficult to diagnose TR4 on non-Cavendish bananas that are susceptible to other strains. For example, a Gros Michel infected with TR4 would not raise alarm because the assumption would be that it is infected with a race 1 strain.

The quickest way to confirm a TR4 infection is by analysing tissue samples using a TR4-specific PCR test[42]. Fungal isolates can also be analysed to determine their vegetative compatibility group (VCG). The VCG associated with TR4 is 01213.

Modes of transmission

TR4 can be spread through infected planting material, infested soil and water. For more information, see the section on the modes of transmission of Fusarium wilt.

Control options

Like all the other Foc strains, TR4 cannot be controlled using fungicides and cannot be eradicated from soil using fumigants. As a result, the spread of TR4 has led to an increase in research on biological control and the role of the soil microbial community in suppressing the pathogen[43].

Crop rotation with a non-banana crop that has anti-fungal activity has been used to reduce losses. In China, farmers have been growning bananas in the presence of TR4 by rotating them with Chinese leek (Allium tuberosum)[39]. Chinese leeks has also been used as an intercrop[44].

The solution best adapted to the continued production of bananas in infested soils is replacing susceptible cultivars with resistant ones. However, given TR4's wide host range, virulence and persistence in the soil[5], experts stress the importance of preventing the spread of the fungus[45][46] (see Preventing the spread of TR4).

Resistant cultivars

The FHIA improvement programme has produced hybrids that are resistant to races 1 and 4, while the Taiwan Banana Research Institute (TBRI) has released Giant Cavendish tissue-culture variants (GCTCV) that have been selected for their increased resistance to TR4[39].

In field trials conducted in China, FHIA-01, FHIA-02, FHIA-18, FHIA-25, Pisang Jari Buaya, Rose (AA), and to a lesser extent GCTCV-119 and FHIA-03, have shown resistance to TR4[40]. Preliminary results from a field trial conducted in the Philippines in 2011-2012 suggest that EAHB and Plantain might be relatively resistant to TR4. Most of the ITC accessions screened displayed little or no sign of Fusarium wilt[47]. The one exception was Ibwi (ITC1465[48]), whose ploidy (2x/3x)[38] suggests that the accession might not be representative of the Ibwi cultivar. It is possible that the wrong accession was introduced to the ITC. In a separate field trial conducted in the Philippines, only 1% of the GCTCV-219 plants exhibited symptoms of Fusarium wilt in the second crop cycle, whereas none of plants of the Cardava cultivar (Saba subgroup) did[49].

Two genetic engineering strategies, one involving the introduction of a resistance gene isolated from a wild relative of the banana and the other of an anti-apoptosis gene derived from a nematode [50], are being tested in Australia. Two of the evaluated lines were still free of the disease after three years of a field trial conducted in the Northern Territory[51].

Preventing the spread of TR4

Even though the threat posed by TR4 has been widely recognized, few TR4-free countries have taken the steps to prevent the entry of the fungal strain or to contain it when it was first detected. By 2018, only two of the 16 countries that are known to have TR4[52] had taken immediate action to contain the fungal strain when it first showed up in an area: Australia in 2015[53] and Israel in 2016[30].

Regulatory framework

At the country level, several steps need to be taken, such as:
  • Designate TR4 as a quarantine pest;
  • Set up a monitoring system to promptly detect incursions;
  • Enact regulations that allow the national plant protection organisation to intervene on farms, including:
    • Conduct inspections;
    • Collect samples;
    • Enforce the destruction of plants.

Contingency plans are typically developed by the authorities responsible for planning and responding to incursions of pests and diseases. They cover the technical and regulatory aspects of confirming suspected cases of and stopping the pest or pathogen from getting established.

Generic contingency plans can also be developed. OIRSA, a regional plant protection organization, whose membership includes Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama, developed one against TR4[54].

Containment

At the farm level, containment (keeping the pathogen in) and exclusion (keeping the pathogen out) are two sides of the same coin. Except for the actions specific to isolating an infested area, the biosecurity measures aimed at preventing the fungus from escaping an infested farm are essentially the same as the ones growers can take to protect their farm[55]. But whereas exclusion is the responsibility of the producer, containment can be legislated.

Exclusion

TR4 is mostly spread by infected planting material and contaminated soil and water. In Australia, the biosecurity measures banana growers have been encouraged to implement were designed to halt the movement of the pathogen along these pathways[55].

Click on photo for resources on how to protect a banana farm produced by Queensland Biosecurity (Photo by J. Daniells)
Click on photo for resources on how to protect a banana farm produced by Queensland Biosecurity (Photo by J. Daniells)

The primary line of defence is the exclusion of all non-essential visitors, vehicles and plant material from outside. This is part of a strategy to manage people and vehicle access that is called differential access zoning[56]. For banana farms, three key zones are proposed:
1. The exclusion zone for vehicles that don’t need to enter the farm;
2. The separation zone for essential vehicles that are low risk (i.e. not associated with field production) and which are usually subjected to cleaning/disinfection procedures;
3. The farming zone, where farming activities take place, is physically separated from the other zones to manage the risk of cross-contamination.

Some of the actual practices put in place include physical barriers, facilities for footwear change at zone boundaries, and vehicle wash-down facilities that use disinfectants such as Farmcleanse®, Sporekill® or Domestos®[57][58][59].

These practices also provide a barrier to the entry of other pests, diseases and weeds. Managing the movement of water and soil can also have a beneficial impact on the environment.

Putting in place measures that reduce soil erosion, such as ground covers and grassed inter-rows,  would also lessen the severity of Fusarium wilt should it arrive[60].

Impact

The severity of the damage depends on interactions between the strain, its host and environmental conditions.

TR4 has devastated commercial plantations of Cavendish bananas in Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia and Australia’s Northern Territory[61].

In mainland China, the strategy of establishing Cavendish plantations in TR4-free areas to stay ahead of the disease has led to the spread of the fungus to all the main banana-growing provinces[62] and at least 3 countries in the Greater Mekong area[29].

In the Philippines, the extent of the damage in Cavendish plantations has not been documented. The Mindanao Banana Farmers and Exporters Association, which represents small-scale farmers growing Cavendish cultivars for the export market, has reported that about 5,900 hectares of their members’ aggregate plantation area had been infected, including 3,000 hectares that have been abandoned[63]. Some growers say their farm was infected by run-off from a nearby large commercial farm[64].

In the few instances in which losses to TR4 have been estimated, they amounted to 121 million USD in Indonesia, 253.3 million USD in Taiwan  and 14.1 million USD Malaysia[65].

In Africa, where TR4 was reported for the first time in 2013 in an export plantation of northern Mozambique, the number of symptomatic plants had risen to more than 570,000 (out of a total of more than 2.5 m plants) by September 2015[66]. The plantation has since scaled down its operations[67][68]. TR4 has also been detected in another plantation[69].

For more information, see the section on the impact of Fusarium wilt.

Efforts to address the threat of TR4

Africa

Following the announcement that TR4 had been detected in Mozambique[70], the African Consortium for TR4 (AC4TR4) was launched at a workshop held at the University of Stellenbosch in April 2014[71].

PDF of a factsheet on TR4 in Africa.

Asia

The Banana Asia-Pacific Network (BAPNET) is coordinating a number of TR4-related projects and activities in various Asian countries[72].

Australia

Following the first confirmed case of TR4 in Queensland[53], Biosecurity Queensland, in partnership with the Australian Banana Growers' Council, set up a programme of surveillance and containment[73][74]. The farm was bought by the Australian Banana Growers Association in late 2016 with the objective of shutting down the farm and destroying all the banana plants[75].

Latin America and the Carribean

OIRSA, a regional organzation for plant and animal health, has produced a contingency plan specific to TR4 for its nine member countries (Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama), the plan is available in Spanish only[54].

The banana research network for Latin America and the Caribbean, MUSALAC, has been organizing training on quarantine pests, with a special emphasis on TR4[45].

In 2014, the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) organized a seminar and a training workshop to raise awareness of the potential threat of TR4 as a key step to prevent its introduction to the Caribbean[76].

Global

In December 2013, a task force on TR4 was set up within the framework of the World Banana Forum[77]. In December 2014, the FAO held a consultation with a group of international experts to agree on the framework for a global programme[46]. The plan would work on three main fronts: preventing future outbreaks, managing existing cases, and strengthening international collaboration and coordination among institutions, researchers, governments and producers.

The Wageningen university & research centre in the Netherlands is leading three projects on TR4: INREF, KNAW-SPIN and PromoBanana[78].

References

1. A new threat to Cavendish bananas? in the March 2011 issue of InfoMus@
3. Under the peel blog post on the origin of TR4, published 18 December 2014
4. Heartbleed and the banana, published 18 April 2014 in the Under the peel blog of the ProMusa community.
5. Ploetz, R.C. 2009. Assessing threats posed by destructive banana pathogens. Proceedings of the International ISHS-ProMusa Symposium on Recent Advances in Banana Crop Protection for Sustainable Production and Improved Livelihoods held in White River, South Africa, 10-14 September 2007. Jones, D.R. and Van den Bergh, I. (eds). Acta Horticulturae 828:245-252.
7. Su, H.J., Hwang, S.C. and Ko, W.H. 1986. Fusarial wilt of Cavendish bananas in Taiwan. Plant Disease 70(9):814-818.
8. Stover, R.H. and Malo, S.E. 1972. The Occurrence of Fusarial Wilt in Normally Resistant 'Dwarf Cavendish' Banana. Plant Disease Reporter 56(11):1000-1003.
10. Ong Kim Pin. 1996. Fusarium wilt of Cavendish banana in a commercial farm in Malaysia. p.211-217. In: Frison, E.A., Horry, J. and De Waele, D. (eds.). Proceedings of New Frontiers in Resistance Breeding for Nematode, Fusarium and Sigatoka, Kuala Lumpur (MYS), 1995/10/2-5. New frontiers in resistance breeding for nematode, Fusarium and Sigatoka. INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA).
11. Hermanto, C., Sutanto, A., HS, E., Daniells, J.W., O'Neill, W.T., Sinohin, V.G.O., Molina, A.B. and Taylor, P.. 2011. Incidence and Distribution of Fusarium Wilt Disease of Banana in Indonesia. Proceedings of the International ISHS-ProMusa Symposium on Global Perspectives on Asian Challenges held in Guangzhou, China, 14-18 September 2009. Van den Bergh, I., Smith, M. and Swennen, R. (eds). Acta Horticulturae 897:313-322.
12. Davis, R.I., Moore, N.Y., Bentley, S., Gunua, T.G. and Rahamma, S. 2000. Further records of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense from New Guinea. Australasian Plant Pathology 29(3):224.
13. Qi, P. 2001. Status report of banana Fusarium wilt disease in China. p.119-120. In: Molina, A.B., Nik Masdek, N.H. and Liew, K.W. (eds.). Proceedings of International Workshop on the Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease, 18-20 October 1999. Banana Fusarium wilt management: Towards sustainable cultivation. INIBAP, Los Banos, Philippines.
14. Qi, Y.X., Zhang, X., Pu, J.J., Xie, Y.X., Zhang, H.Q. and Huang, S.L. 2008. Race 4 identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense from Cavendish cultivars in Hainan province, China. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 3(1):46-47
15. Molina, A., Fabregar, E., Sinohin, V.G., Herradura, L., Fourie, G. and Viljoen, A. 2008. Confirmation of tropical race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, infecting Cavendish bananas in the Philippines. Abstract of presentation to the 2008 Centennial Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society
18. News on agricultural quarantine measures on bananas in the 5 September 2012 edition of muscatdaily.com
19. Distribution of TR4 on the Banana Fusarium wilt in Africa website
20. Status of Fusarium wilt in India. Presentation by Raman Thangavelu, National Research Center for Banana, at the 2016 BAPNET meeting.
21. India in a race against wilt in Cavendish banana in the 23 April 2018 issue of The Hindu Business Line.
23. Ploetz R. et al. 2015. Tropical race 4 of Panama disease in the Middle East. Phytoparasitica, 43:283-293.
24. CNN news published 22 July 2015
28. The 22 days that changed the Australian banana industry InfoMus@ News and analysis posted on 16 March 2015.
32. Comments on the declaration that TR4 had been eradicated from Israel on Mediawatch, Facebook and Twitter
33. Chittarath, K., Mostert, D., Crew, K.S., Viljoen, A., Kong, G., Molina, A.B. and J.E. Thomas. 2017. First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (VCG 01213/16) associated with Cavendish bananas in Laos. Plant Disease.
34. Hung, T.N., Jung, N.Q., Mostert, D., Viljoen, A., Chao, C.P. and Molina, A.B. 2017. First report of Fusarium wilt of Cavendish bananas, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (VCG 01213/16), in Vietnam. Plant Disease.
36. Houbin, C., Chunxiang, X., Qirui, F., Guibing, H., Jianguo, L., Zehuai, W. and Molina, A.B. 2005. Screening of banana clones for resistance to fusarium wilt in China. p.165-174 in Proceedings of Proceedings of the 3rd BAPNET Steering Committee Meeting.  Molina, A.B., Xu, L.B., Roa, V.N., Van den Bergh, I. and Borromeo, K.H. (eds.) INIBAP-ASPNET, Los Baños, Philippines.
37. Risk assessment of Eastern African Highland Bananas and Plantains against TR4, a poster presented at the 2012 International Banana Symposium in Taiwan.
38. Ploidy of Ibwi in MGIS
39. Growing Cavendish in the presence of TR4 in the 10 December 2012 issue of InfoMus@'s News and analysis
40. Huang, B.Z., Xu, L.B. and Molina, A.B. 2005. Preliminary evaluation of IMTP-III varieties and local cultivars against Fusarium wilt disease in southern China. Proceedings of the 3rd BAPNET Steering Committee meeting held in Guangzhou 23-26 November 2004. A.B. Molina, V.N. Roa, I. Van den Bergh and K.H. Borromeo (eds). Advancing Banana and Plantain R&D in Asia and the Pacific, Vol. 13:187-191. INIBAP, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
42. Catching up with Fusarium wilt in the May 2010 issue of InfoMus@
44. Nadarajah, H.et al. 2016. Effects of genotype and intercropping with Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium wilt tropical race 4 in banana. p.153-160 in the Proceedings of ISHS-ProMusa Symposium: Unravelling the Banana's Genomic Potential held in Brisbane, Australia, 17-22 August 2014. Acta Horticulturae 1114.
45. TR4's transcontinental leap published in InfoMus@'s News and analysis section on 21 November 2013.
46. FAO and partners call for a global response to deadly banana disease published 23 December 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
47. Risk assessment of Eastern African Highland Bananas and Plantains against TR4, a poster presented at the 2012 International Banana Symposium in Taiwan.
48. ITC1465 in MGIS
50. Paul, J-Y., Becker, D., Dickman, M.B., Harding,R., Khanna, H. and Dale, J. 2011. Apoptosis-related genes confer resistance to Fusarium wilt in transgenic 'Lady Finger' bananas. Plant Biotechnology Journal 9(9):1141-1148.
51. Dale, J. et al. 2017. Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4. Nature Communications 8(1):1496.
52. In order of first reports: Taiwan, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Australia, Philippines, Oman, Jordan, Mozambique, Lebanon, Pakistan, India, Israel, Laos, Vietnam and Myanmar.
54. Dita, M., Echegoyén Ramos, P.E. and Pérez Vicente, L.F. 2013. Plan de contingencia ante un brote de la raza 4 tropical de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense En un país de la región del OIRSA. OIRSA, San Salvador, El Salvador. 155p.
55. TR4 Grower Kit: resources to help banana growers protect their farm against an incursion of TR4.
56. The benefits of exclusion in TR4 as a driver of agroecological approaches in banana production.
57. Nel, B., Steinberg, C., Labuschagne, N. and Viljoen, A. 2007. Evaluation of fungicides and sterilants for potential application in the management of Fusarium wilt of banana. Crop Protection 26(4):697-705.
58. Meldrum, R.A., Daly, A.M., Tran-Nguyen, L.T.T. and Aitken, E.A.B. 2013. The effect of surface sterilants on spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4. Crop Protection 54:194-198.
59. Research findings of disinfectant trials for TR4 conducted by Australia's Department of Fisheries and Fisheries
60. TR4 as a driver of agroecological approaches in banana production, published by Jeff Daniells in InfoMus@'s Under the peel blog on 25 Octobre 2016.
61. Molina, A.B., Fabregar, E., Sinohin, V.G., Yi, G. and Viljoen, A. 2009. Recent occurrence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 in Asia. Proceedings of the International ISHS-ProMusa Symposium on Recent Advances in Banana Crop Protection for Sustainable Production and Improved Livelihoods held in White River, South Africa, 10-14 September 2007. Jones, D.R. and Van den Bergh, I. (eds.). Acta Horticulturae 828:109-116. ISHS, Leuven, Belgium.
62. Farquhar, I. 2012. Bananas in China. Report on a visit to three banana producing provinces of China by Dr. Iain Farquhar on behalf of Banana Link and the Steering Committee of the World Banana Forum. 35 pp.
66. Containing TR4 by Altus Viljoen, a presentation given at the 2015 Congress of the Australian Banana Idustry.
67. A pathogen drives banana plantation into bankrupcy  in 16 March 2018 issue of eVerdade (in Portuguese).
68. Mozambique rues disease blighting banana plantations in the 20 March 2018 issue of APA News.
69. Global Blight Threatens Bananatastrophe in Mozambique, 28 October 2015 in Voice of America
70. The year of TR4 published on 19 December 2013 in the ProMusa blog.
71. AC4TR4 on the website on Fusarium wilt in Africa
72. Website of the BAPNET network
73. Biosecurity Queensland's response to TR4
74. TR4 response on the website of the Australian Banana Grower's Council
75. Unprecedented banana farm buy-out in InfoMus@'s Mediawatch, 24 October 2016
78. Research projects led by Wageningen University scientists

See also on this website

News and blogs on TR4:
Photos on the symptoms of Fusarium wilt in the Musarama image bank
Video on the symptoms, transmission and prevention of Fusarium wilt in the Musarama video bank
Musapedia page on an INREF-funded research project managed by Wageningen University & Research Centre (Panama disease: Multi-level solutions for a global problem)

Further reading

Tropical race 4 grower kit, series of documents produced by Biosecurity Queensland to help Australian banana growers protect their farms
Contingency plan (in Spanish) on TR4 for OIRSA countries
Diagnostic manual and links to presentations given at a 2014 FAO-CARDI regional workshop on the prevention and diagnostic of Fusarium wilt
Fact sheet on Panama disease (8MB PDF) on the Plant Health Australia website
Fusarium wilt of banana laboratory diagnostics manual (1.8MB PDF) on the Plant Health Australia website
Datasheet on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in CABI's Invasive Species Compendium
Panama disease: an old nemesis rears its ugly head, Part 1: The beginnings of the banana export trades Part 2: the Cavendish era and beyond
Research projects on Fusarium wilt that are managed by Wageningen University & Research Centre: fusariumwilt.org
Response to TR4 on the website of the Australian Banana Growers' Council
Response to TR4 on the website of Biosecurity Queensland
Website of the Banana Asia-Pacific Network (BAPNET) network
Banana Production at the Crossroads, video of a scientific session on the impact of TR4 at the American Phytopathological Society's 2015 Annual Meeting in Pasadena, California, USA.