Tropical race 4 (TR4) is the name given to the fungus Fusarium odoratissimum1 that causes Fusarium wilt (aka Panama disease) in Cavendish cultivars and a wide range of other cultivars. The fungus used to be classified under the umbrella name Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc).
The term TR4 was coined to distinguish this race 4 strain from the ones that affect Cavendish cultivars only in the presence of predisposing factors such as low temperatures. The latter are known as subtropical race 4 (STR4). TR4 is associated with a particular vegetative compatibility group called VCG 01213, although other VCGs have also been reported to cause Fusarium wilt in Cavendish cultivars in the absence of predisposing factors2 .
TR4 has a wider host range than just Cavendish cultivars. In addition to hitherto unaffected cultivars, such as 'Lakatan' and 'Pisang mas', it also causes disease in groups of cultivars susceptible to races 1 and 2, such as Gros Michel, Silk, Pome and Bluggoe.
Like all other soil-dwelling Foc strains, TR4 cannot be controlled using fungicides and cannot be eradicated from soil using fumigants. The capacity of TR4 to survive decades in the soil, along with its lethal impact and wide host range, are among the main reasons it was ranked as the greatest threat to banana production5 . To avoid further losses to the pathogen, the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has called on banana-producing countries to step up monitoring and reporting, and to contain suspected incursions to prevent the fungus from getting established6 .
- Host range
- Symptoms and diagnosis
- Modes of transmission
- Disease management
- Preventing the spread of TR4
- Efforts to address the threat of TR4
- See also on this website
- Further reading
- External links
There is no evidence that TR4 originated from a strain that overcame the resistance of Cavendish cultivars7 . The strain that became known as TR4 took scientists by surprise in the early 1990s when newly established commercial Cavendish plantations where promptly destroyed by Fusarium wil in areas of Malaysia and Indonesia with no history of Cavendish banana cultivation8 . The theory developped by Ivan Buddenhagen is that TR4 evolved as an endophyte in a local Musa acuminata ssp. malaccensis, one of the wild ancestors of domesticated bananas, and was in the soil when the plantation was set up9 .
In Taiwan, symptoms of Fusarium wilt on Cavendish cultivars were first observed in 196710 . In 1972, the results of pathogenicity tests suggested that the isolates belonged to race 111 , but isolates tested in 1977 were designated as race 412 . In 1989, a previously undescribed VCG, designated VCG 01213, was identified in samples from Taiwan13 .
The vulnerability of Cavendish cultivars to what would become known as TR4 was underscored in the early 1990s, when Fusarium wilt decimated newly established plantations of Cavendish bananas in Indonesia and Malaysia8 . The TR4 isolates introduced to Taiwan probably came from one of those places8 .
By the end of the 20th century, TR4 had been found in Taiwan, Malaysia14 , Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Halmahera, Kalimantan15 on the island of Borneo, and Papua Province16 on the island of New Guinea), mainland China (Guangdong17 , Hainan18 , Guangxi19 , Fujian20 21 and Yunnan22 ), and Australia (Northern Territory23 ). In 2008, it was reported to be in the Philippines' island of Mindanao since at least 200524
Since then, the number of first reports has increased exponentially, although they have not all been formally published.
In 2013, TR4 was reported to be in Jordan, the first official report of TR4 outside the Southeast Asia-Pacific region27 . A 2014 survey revealed another infected area north of the original outbreak28 .
At the end of 2013, TR4 was also reported to be in Africa, where it was confirmed to be in an export banana plantation located in northern Mozambique29 . The Matanuska farm in Nampula province filed for insolvency in 2018, after which it was bought by Jacaranda Agricultura Lda and renamed Jacaranda Monapo. In 2014, TR4 was reported to be present in two other Jacaranda farms (Lúrio, in Nampula, and Ocua, in Cabo Delgado province)30 .
In 2015, TR4 was reported to be in Queensland, Australia31 32 , as well as in Lebanon and Pakistan33 34 . An analysis of isolates from Pakistan and the Phillipines showed that they were closely related35 . The incursion in Lebanon has also been shown to be associated with the one in Jordan36 .
In 2018, TR4 was confirmed to be in Myanmar39 . The analysis of isolates from Laos, Vietnam and Myanmar provided evidence that the particular TR4 strain in these countries was likely introduced from China40 .
In 2018, Israel's National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) officially announced that TR4 had been found in two farms in Israel (the Carmel coastal plain and the eastern shores of Lake Galilee) in 201641 . After taking measures to contain the incursions, the NPPO declared that the fungal strain had been eradicated from Israel42 . The declaration drew comments that TR4 had been contained rather than eradicated43 . In 2019, the pest status was amended to "actionable, under eradication" following the discovery of TR4 at a number of sites close to the eastern/southern Lake Galilee area44 .
In 2018, TR4 was officially reported to be in India, based on isolates collected in the state of Uttar Pradesh in 201745 . However, wilting symptoms on Cavendish cultivars had previously been observed, in 2015, by a banana grower from Barari village in the state of Bihar. Samples were collected in 2016 and TR4's presence in Bihar's Katikar and Purnea districts published in 201946 , by which time it had spread to the states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat47 .
In August 2019, the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) confirmed the presence of TR4 in an area of 175 ha in Colombia's La Guajira department4 . Symptomatic plants had been spotted earlier and the area quarantined on 11 June. It is the first report of TR4 in Latin America48 .
A suspected case of TR4 in a plantation operated by a Chinese company was reported in June 2019 in the Chiang Rai province of Thailand49 .
In 2019, TR4 was confirmed to be in Turkey. According to the first report in Plant Disease, symptoms of Fusarium wilt were first observed in March 2018 during a survey of banana greenhouses along the Mediterranean coast50 .
In 2020, the NPPO of France informed the Secretariat of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization that TR4 had been detected on the island of Grande-Terre, in the French overseas department of Mayotte51 . The fungus was found in 'Baraboufaka' (Bluggoe) and 'Kissoukari' (Silk) plants sampled from two adajacent plots in Poroani, a village in the southwestern part of the island. The symptoms were first observed in October 2019.
TR4 is also present at the Eden Project's indoor rainforest biome in Cornwall, England52 .
In addition to Cavendish cultivars, TR4 affects cultivars susceptible to races 1 and 2 as well as hitherto unaffected cultivars such as, 'Barangan' (Lakatan subgroup, AAA genome group)53 and 'Pisang Mas'. The often cited figure that TR4 affects cultivars that account for more than 80% of the world's banana production54 assumed that Plantains were also susceptible. At the time, however, the only Plantain-like material that had been evaluated against TR4 were hybrids produced by breeders55 . The reaction of the Plantains domesticated in Africa, along with another group of locally domesticated bananas, the East African highland bananas (EAHB), was not known. The first field screening of these two subgroups was conducted in 2011-2012 in the Philippines using accessions from the ITC genebank. Most of the accessions tested were slightly to moderately susceptible56 . Except for the 'Obubit Ntanga' Plantain accession that was still symptom-free after 10 months (a relatively short time given the perennial nature of most banana production), the disease incidence was below 5%, with the exception of 'Ibwi', for which the disease incidence was 29%. However, the ploidy of the ITC accession called Ibwi (2x/3x57 ) suggests that the material tested might not be the EAHB cultivar 'Ibwi'.
The FHIA improvement programme has produced hybrids that are resistant to races 1 and 4, while the Taiwan Banana Research Institute (TBRI) has released Giant Cavendish tissue-culture variants (GCTCV) that are partially resistant to TR458 . In field trials conducted in China, FHIA-01, FHIA-02, FHIA-18, FHIA-25, Pisang Jari Buaya, Rose (AA), and to a lesser extent GCTCV-119 and FHIA-03, have shown resistance to TR459 . In a field trial conducted in the Philippines, only 1% of the GCTCV-219 plants exhibited symptoms of Fusarium wilt in the second crop cycle, whereas none of plants of the Cardava cultivar (Saba subgroup) did60 .
The symptoms of a TR4 infection are the same as those caused by any other Foc strains (see symptoms of Fusarium wilt).
However, the wide host range of TR4 makes it difficult to diagnose TR4 on non-Cavendish bananas that are susceptible to other strains. For example, a Gros Michel infected with TR4 would not raise alarm because the assumption would be that it is infected with a race 1 strain.
The quickest way to confirm a TR4 infection is by analysing tissue samples using a TR4-specific PCR test61 . Fungal isolates can also be analysed to determine their vegetative compatibility group (VCG). The VCG associated with TR4 is 01213.
TR4 can be spread through infected planting material, infested soil and water. For more information, see the section on the modes of transmission of Fusarium wilt.
Like all the other Foc strains, TR4 cannot be controlled using fungicides and cannot be eradicated from soil using fumigants. As a result, the spread of TR4 has led to an increase in research on biological control and the role of the soil microbial community in suppressing the pathogen62 .
Crop rotation with a non-banana crop that has anti-fungal activity has been used to reduce losses. In China, farmers have been growning bananas in the presence of TR4 by rotating them with Chinese leek (Allium tuberosum)63 . Chinese leeks has also been used as an intercrop64 .
The solution best adapted to the continued production of bananas in infested soils is replacing susceptible cultivars with resistant ones. However, given TR4's wide host range, virulence and persistence in the soil65 , experts stress the importance of preventing the spread of the fungus66 67 (see Preventing the spread of TR4).
The FHIA improvement programme has produced hybrids that are resistant to races 1 and 4, while the Taiwan Banana Research Institute (TBRI) has released Giant Cavendish tissue-culture variants (GCTCV) that have been selected for their increased resistance to TR468 .
In field trials conducted in China, FHIA-01, FHIA-02, FHIA-18, FHIA-25, Pisang Jari Buaya, Rose (AA), and to a lesser extent GCTCV-119 and FHIA-03, have shown resistance to TR469 . Preliminary results from a field trial conducted in the Philippines in 2011-2012 suggest that EAHB and Plantain might be relatively resistant to TR4. The incidence of Fusarium wilt on the screened ITC accessions was generally low 75 weeks after planting70 . The one exception was Ibwi (ITC146571 ), whose ploidy (2x/3x)72 suggests that the accession might not be representative of the Ibwi cultivar. It is possible that the wrong accession was introduced to the ITC. In a separate field trial conducted in the Philippines, only 1% of the GCTCV-219 plants exhibited symptoms of Fusarium wilt in the second crop cycle, whereas none of plants of the Cardava cultivar (Saba subgroup) did73 .
Two genetic engineering strategies, one involving the introduction of a resistance gene isolated from a wild relative of the banana and the other of an anti-apoptosis gene derived from a nematode 74 , are being tested in Australia. Two of the evaluated lines were still free of the disease after three years of a field trial conducted in the Northern Territory75 .
Even though the threat posed by TR4 has been widely recognized, few TR4-free countries have taken the steps to prevent the entry of the fungal strain or to contain it when it was first detected. By 2018, only two of the 16 countries that are known to have TR476 had taken immediate action to contain the fungal strain when it first showed up in an area: Australia in 201577 and Israel in 201678 .
- Designate TR4 as a quarantine pest;
- Set up a monitoring system to promptly detect incursions;
- Enact regulations that allow the national plant protection organisation to intervene on farms, including:
- Conduct inspections;
- Collect samples;
Enforce the destruction of plants.
Contingency plans are typically developed by the authorities responsible for planning and responding to incursions of pests and diseases. They cover the technical and regulatory aspects of confirming suspected cases of and stopping the pest or pathogen from getting established.
Generic contingency plans can also be developed. OIRSA, a regional plant protection organization, whose membership includes Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama, developed one against TR479 .
At the farm level, containment (keeping the pathogen in) and exclusion (keeping the pathogen out) are two sides of the same coin. Except for the actions specific to isolating an infested area, the biosecurity measures aimed at preventing the fungus from escaping an infested farm are essentially the same as the ones growers can take to protect their farm80 . But whereas exclusion is the responsibility of the producer, containment can be legislated.
TR4 is mostly spread by infected planting material and contaminated soil and water. In Australia, the biosecurity measures banana growers have been encouraged to implement were designed to halt the movement of the pathogen along these pathways81 .
The primary line of defence is the exclusion of all non-essential visitors, vehicles and plant material from outside. This is part of a strategy to manage people and vehicle access that is called differential access zoning82
. For banana farms, three key zones are proposed:
1. The exclusion zone for vehicles that don’t need to enter the farm;
2. The separation zone for essential vehicles that are low risk (i.e. not associated with field production) and which are usually subjected to cleaning/disinfection procedures;
3. The farming zone, where farming activities take place, is physically separated from the other zones to manage the risk of cross-contamination.
Some of the actual practices put in place include physical barriers, facilities for footwear change at zone boundaries, and vehicle wash-down facilities that use disinfectants such as Farmcleanse®, Sporekill® or Domestos®83 84 85 .
These practices also provide a barrier to the entry of other pests, diseases and weeds. Managing the movement of water and soil can also have a beneficial impact on the environment.
The severity of the damage depends on interactions between the strain, its host and environmental conditions.
TR4 has devastated commercial plantations of Cavendish bananas in Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia and Australia’s Northern Territory87 .
In mainland China, the strategy of establishing Cavendish plantations in TR4-free areas to stay ahead of the disease has led to the spread of the fungus to all the main banana-growing provinces88 and at least 3 countries in the Greater Mekong area89 .
In the Philippines, the extent of the damage in Cavendish plantations has not been documented. The Mindanao Banana Farmers and Exporters Association, which represents small-scale farmers growing Cavendish cultivars for the export market, has reported that about 5,900 hectares of their members’ aggregate plantation area had been infected, including 3,000 hectares that have been abandoned90 . Some growers say their farm was infected by run-off from a nearby large commercial farm91 .
In the few instances in which losses to TR4 have been estimated, they amounted to 121 million USD in Indonesia, 253.3 million USD in Taiwan and 14.1 million USD Malaysia92 .
In Africa, where TR4 was reported for the first time in 2013 in an export plantation of northern Mozambique, the number of symptomatic plants had risen to more than 570,000 (out of a total of more than 2.5 m plants) by September 201593 . The disease reduced the production area from 1,500 ha in 2014 to 900 ha in 201630 . That same year, Formosana was planted on 200 ha. In 2018, only these 200 hectares were still in production and the number of workers had been reduced from 2,500 in 2014 to 750 in 201830 .
For more information, see the section on the impact of Fusarium wilt.
Following the first confirmed case of TR4 in Queensland97 , Biosecurity Queensland, in partnership with the Australian Banana Growers' Council, set up a programme of surveillance and containment98 99 . The farm was bought by the Australian Banana Growers Association in late 2016 with the objective of shutting down the farm and destroying all the banana plants100 .
In 2018, after TR4 had been found in two other farms101 102 , a system of certification was put in place for TR4-infested farms that meet the requirements for interstate and intrastate quarantine purposes (Inspection of bananas for freedom of soil and plant material103 ). The system allows accredited businesses to certify their fruit consignments without putting the wider industry at risk. Accredited farms will be visited by biosecurity officers to audit the fruit inspection process and ensure that biosecurity requirements are being met104 .
In 2018, the Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries released the review of Biosecurity Queensland's TR4 programme105 . It had commissioned the independent review to establish on what basis the programme should continue106 .
OIRSA, a regional organzation for plant and animal health, has produced a contingency plan specific to TR4 for its nine member countries (Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama), the plan is available in Spanish only107 .
In 2014, the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) organized a seminar and a training workshop to raise awareness of the potential threat of TR4 as a key step to prevent its introduction to the Caribbean109 .
In December 2013, a task force on TR4 was set up within the framework of the World Banana Forum110 . In December 2014, the FAO held a consultation with a group of international experts to agree on the framework for a global programme111 . The plan would work on three main fronts: preventing future outbreaks, managing existing cases, and strengthening international collaboration and coordination among institutions, researchers, governments and producers.
- TR4 in Mayotte
- TR4 in Turkey
- TR4 in Colombia
- 'Goldfinger' given a second chance in Australia
- Update on TR4 in Israel