'FHIA-01' at a glance


Credit: Jeff Daniells
Ploidy level


Genome group



Synthetic hybrid

Breeding institute


Breeder's code



AAB Pome cv. Santa Catarina Prata x SH-3142

ITC code


Musapedia pages on FHIA hybrids

'FHIA-01' is a synthetic hybrid dessert banana that was released by FHIA in 1988.  It was developed from a Dwarf Pome and another synthetic hybrid.  'FHIA-01' plants are cold- and wind-tolerant and produce higher quality fruits in sub-tropical, than tropical, conditions.  'FHIA-01' is tolerant/resistant to Fusarium wilt and black leaf streak (black Sigatoka) and susceptible to Sigatoka leaf spot (yellow Sigatoka) and nematodes.  'FHIA-01' has been widely distributed for subsistence and commercial cultivation.  'FHIA-01' has also been marketed under the name 'Goldfinger'.

Local names

'Goldfinger' (Australia)

History of cultivation and current distribution

'FHIA-01' was released by FHIA in 1988 as part of their programme to breed bananas with increased tolerance/resistance to major pests and diseases [1] [2].  The female parent was a ‘Dwarf Brazilian/Dwarf Apple’ type (AAB, Pome subgroup) and the male parent was 'SH-3142', an advanced cultivar (genome group AA) also produced by FHIA[3][4].  'FHIA-01' was one of the first synthetic hybrids to be widely distributed to more than 50 tropical and sub-tropical countries for subsistence and commercial cultivation after it demonstrated tolerance to Fusarium wilt and high agronomic performance during the International Musa Testing Programme phase 1[5][6][7].  'FHIA-01' was released for commercial cultivation in Australia in 1995 under the name of 'Goldfinger'[8].

Morphological characteristics

'FHIA-01' plants grow to around 2.5 m tall and the pseudostem is shiny and green to light-green with many dark brown blotches[9].  The leaves are slightly drooping[1][8] and unblemished[4].  The leaves remain quite green during the winter in southern Queensland, Australia, and this is a characteristic of some cultivars that are tolerant to Fusarium wilt[8].  The bunch hangs at a slight angle and is asymmetric{[9].  The rachis is bare[4].  The male bud is short and heart-shaped with distinctive wide shoulders and revolute (rolling) bracts that lift one at a time[9][8].

Agronomic characteristics

FHIA-01 bunch being weighed in Australia. (Photo by J. Daniells)
FHIA-01 bunch being weighed in Australia. (Photo by J. Daniells)

'FHIA-01' plants are cold-tolerant and produce better quality fruit in sub-tropical than tropical conditions[5][10].  Because of their small stature they are considered to be wind-tolerant[4].  The finger length is considered to be extra large by Cavendish standards[8]

Days from planting to flowering: 11 months[11], 11.3 and 11.6 months[12], 268[13]

Days from harvesting motherplant to flowering of the ratoon: 156[13]

Days from flowering to harvest: 133[14]

Days from planting to harvest: 390[13], 13.6 and 14.4 months[8], 14.6, 15.1 and 15.3 months[12]

Days from harvesting motherplant to harvest of the ratoon: 265[13]

Height at shooting (cm): 211[11], 239 and 245[13], 274 and 275[8]

Height at harvest (cm): 239, 245 and 254{[12]

Height of tallest sucker (cm): 122 and 173[12]

Number of suckers: 4.3, 4.8 and 5.1[12]

Girth at shooting: 62[11], 73 and 77[13]

Functional leaves at shooting: 10 and 10.7[13]

Total leaves at shooting: 10.2 and 10.8[13], 13.3, 13.4 and 13.7[12]

Mean bunch weight (kg): 26.2[11], 33.9[14], 34.3 and 36.9[8]

Number of hands: 7.3 and 8[12]

Total number of fruits: 99.3, 105.3 and 108{[12], 120[13]

Number of fruits on hand:

Finger length (cm): 19.1[11], 24[14], 25.5 and 26.4[8]

Finger girth (cm): 14.3[14]

Finger weight (g): 121.7[14]

Yield (t/ha): 20.5[15], 34.9[11], 33.1, 40.1 and 40.2[12], 38.6 and 49.6[8]

Productivity index (100 x (bunch weight (in kg)/cycling time in days)): 1.3[16]

Peel (total waste from a whole finger, %): 44[14]

Shelf life (days): 7.6[14]

Reaction to diseases and pests

Fungal diseases

Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense)

'FHIA-01' has been classified as susceptible but highly tolerant[17] and as resistant[18][3][11][19][1][4][20] to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense races 1, 2 and 4.

Black leaf streak / black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis)

'FHIA-01' has been classified as resistant to Mycosphaerella fijiensis[13][2]. However, breakdown of resistance was observed in Samoa in 2006[21].

Sigatoka leaf spot / yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola)

'FHIA-01' has been classified as both resistant[15] and susceptible[5] to Mycosphaerella musicolaDuring field evaluation trials in Australia for Fusarium wilt, though in field unsprayed for leaf diseases, 'FHIA-01' developed very few symptoms of 'yellow Sigatoka' leaf spot[22].

Eumusae leaf spot (Mycosphaerella eumusae)

'FHIA-01' has been classified as susceptible to Mycosphaerella eumusae but this can be controlled by regular de-leafing[8].

Crown rot

'FHIA-01' has been classified as resistant to crown rot[13][4].

Bacterial diseases

'FHIA-01' does not seem to have been evaluated for its tolerance to weevils.

Viral diseases

Bunchy top (Banana bunchy top virus)

'FHIA-01' has been classified as highly susceptible to Banana bunchy top virus[8].


Burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis)

'FHIA-01' plants have demonstrated varying levels of susceptibility to the burrowing nematode R. similis. In one study, plantlets derived from tissue-culture material were as susceptible as the susceptible reference genotypes Grande Naine or Highgate whilst plants grown from corms were less susceptible than the susceptible reference genotypes but not as resistant as the resistant reference genotypes SH-3142 and Yangambi Km5[23].  In another study, tissue-culture plantlets inoculated after they were 28 weeks old were resistant to R. similis, had fewer nematodes per unit weight three weeks after inoculation than Cavendish plants and were more tolerant than Cavendish plants when supporting the same number of nematodes[24].  In a further study using tissue-culture derived plantlets planted in pots in greenhouse conditions, 'FHIA-01' plants were moderately susceptible to R. similis[25] .

Lesion nematode (Pratylenchus spp.)

'FHIA-01' has been classified as moderately susceptible to Pratylenchus spp. (4,848 nematodes per 100 g root) when tissue-culture plantlets were grown in pots[25].

Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.)

'FHIA-01' has been classified as susceptible to Meloidogyne spp. (41,352 nematodes per 100 g root) when tissue-culture plantlets were grown in pots[25].

Spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus multicinctus)

'FHIA-01' has been classified as susceptible to Helicotylenchus multicinctus (1,577 nematodes per 100 g root) when tissue-culture plantlets were grown in pots[25].


'FHIA-01' does not seem to have been evaluated for its tolerance to weevils.

Reaction to abiotic stress

'FHIA-01' does not seem to have been evaluated for its tolerance to drought or other abiotic stresses.

Recommendations for cultivation, harvest, post-harvest

FHIA recommends that 'FHIA-01' be cultivated under the following conditions[1]:

Altitude: 0 – 1400 m

Rainfall: 2,000 mm/year well distributed throughout the year

Temperature: optimum of 28 °C, though is cold-tolerant and able to grow at lower temperatures than the more commonly grown Cavendish varieties

Soil: unflooded, well-drained

Planting density: 1,600 plants/ha recommended

Fertilizer inputs: in Honduras, applied 300 kg/year nitrogen (N), 250 kg/year potassium (K).  'FHIA-01' plants are able to produce high yields with minimal inputs of fertiliser (pers. comms. Jeff Daniells, 2013) and are therefore recommended for cultivation in organic or subsistence conditions.

Pesticide inputs: because 'FHIA-01' is tolerant/resistant to many of the pests and diseases that affect bananas (see ‘reaction to diseases and pests’ section) it can be grown without the application of pesticides.

Management advice: remove infected tips every four weeks (de-leaf).  Remove young shoots every eight weeks (de-sucker). 

'FHIA-01' hands mature sequentially and can be harvested one at a time[1].  To avoid the fruits arriving to consumers in an over-ripe, soft condition the hands or the whole bunch should be harvested when they are in a hard green condition[26].  The fruits have a green life of approximately 27 days when kept at 20°C.  Fruits ripened at 16°C with 96 % relative humidity and 1 ppm ethylene (trickle) had good appearance and colour.  The shelf life of ripe fruits is approximately 8 days when kept at 20°C.  The fruits only obtain a high sugar content once the peel is a bright yellow colour[26].


'FHIA-01' is a dessert banana that is mostly eaten raw when ripe.  The ripe fruit has a sweet-acid, apple flavour that is similar to the mother plant[1][4]. The cut fruit does not turn black upon exposure to the air and so is good to use in salads[1].


2. Bakry, F., Carreel, F., Jenny, C. and Horry, J.P. 2009. Genetic improvement of banana. p3-50. In: Jain, S.M. and Priyadarshan, P.M. (eds.). Breeding plantation tree crops: tropical species. Springer, New York (USA).
3. Rowe, P.R. and Rosales, F.E. 1993. Diploid breeding at FHIA and the development of Goldfinger (FHIA-01). Infomusa (FRA) 2(2):9-11.
5. Mejia Mesa, G.A. 1996. FHIA-01. Infomusa 5(2): 17-18.
6. Orjeda, G., Escalant, J. and Moore, N. 1999. The international Musa Testing Programme (IMTP) phase II overview of final report and summary of results. Infomusa (FRA) 8(1):3-10.
7. Ploetz, R.C., Haynes, J., Vazquez, A. and Benscher, D. 2000. Performance of new banana germplasm in South Florida. HortScience 35(1):120-124.
8. Daniells, J.W., Pegg, K.G., Searle, C., Smith, M.K., Whiley, T., Langdon, P., Bryde, N.J. and O'Hare, T. 1995. Goldfinger in Australia: a banana variety with potential. Infomusa (FRA) 4(1):5-6.
9. Alvarez, J.M. and Rosales, F.E. Rosales, F.E. (ed.). 2008. Identification and characterization guide for FHIA banana and plantain hybrids. Bioversity International, Montpellier. 15p.
10. Rowe, P.R. and Rosales, F.E. 2000. Banana breeding for disease resistance: Conventional banana breeding in Honduras. p435-449. In: Jones, D.R. (ed.). Diseases of banana, Abacá and Enset. CABI Publishing, Wallingford (GBR).
11. Jamaluddin, S.H. 1996. Evaluation of FHIA-01 (Goldfinger) and some commercial Cavendish clones under Malaysian conditions. p.201-204. In: Frison, E.A., Horry, J. and De Waele, D. (eds.). Proceedings of New Frontiers in Resistance Breeding for Nematode, Fusarium and Sigatoka, Kuala Lumpur (MYS), 1995/10/2-5. New frontiers in resistance breeding for nematode, Fusarium and Sigatoka. INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA).
12. Dzomeku, B.M., Banful, B., Ankoma, A.A., Yeboah, D.K. and Darkey, S.K. 2000. Multilocational evaluation of FHIA hybrids in Ghana. Infomusa (FRA) 9(1):20-22.
13. Krauss, U., Soberanis, W. and Jarra, J. 2001. Evaluation of FHIA hybrids in comparison with local Musa clones in a black Sigatoka-free area of eastern Peru. Infomusa (FRA) 10(1):21-26.
14. Nowakunda, K., Rubaihayo, P.R., Ameny, M.A. and Tushemereirwe, W. 2000. Consumer acceptability of introduced bananas in Uganda. Infomusa (FRA) 9(2):22-25.
15. Pegg, K.G. 1995. Goldfinger: agronomy and disease resistance. In: Proceedings of the First National Banana Industry Congress, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. 9-12 May 1995, pp 78-81.
16. Ploetz, R.C., Haynes, J.L. and Vásquez, A. 1999. Evaluation of bananas for niche markets in subtropical Florida. Infomusa (FRA) 8(2):15-18.
18. Jones, D.R. and Tézenas du Montcel, H. 1994. Final report for UNDP/World Bank on the results of the International Musa Testing Programme (Phase I). INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA). 462p.
20. Williams, R. 2005. Australian banana industry: Status and RandD update. p.19-36. In: Molina, A.B., Xu, L.B., Roa, V.N., Van den Bergh, I. and Borromeo, K.H. (eds.). Proceedings of Proceedings of the 3rd BAPNET Steering Committee Meeting.], Guangzhou (CHN), 2004/11/23-26. Advancing banana and plantain RandD in Asia and the Pacific. INIBAP-ASPNET, Los Baños (PHL).
21. Daniells, J.W. 2009. Global banana disease management - getting serious with sustainability and food security. p.411-416. In: Jones, D.R. and Van den Bergh, I. (eds.). Proceedings of International ISHS-ProMusa Symposium on Recent Advances in Banana Crop Protection for Sustainable Production and Improved Livelihoods, White River, South Africa, 2007/09/10-14. Acta Horticulturae 828. ISHS, Leuven (BEL).
22. Moore, N.Y., Pegg, K.G., Smith, L., Langdon, P.W., Bentley, S. and Smith, M.K. 2001. Fusarium wilt of banana in Australia. p.64-75. In: Molina, A.B., Nik Masdek, N.H. and Liew, K.W. (eds.). Proceedings of International Workshop on the Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease, Genting Highlands Resort (MYS), 1999/10/18-20. Banana Fusarium wilt management: Towards sustainable cultivation. INIBAP, Los Baños (PHL).
23. Viaene, N., Dueñas, J. and De Waele, D. 1997. Pot screening of Musa genotypes for resistance and tolerance to Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae.  Nematology 5: 85-98.
24. Stanton, J.M. 1999. Assessment of resistance and tolerance of in vitro-propagated banana plants to burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 39:891-895.
25. Moens, T., Araya, A., Swennen, R. and De Waele, D. 2005. Screening of Musa cultivars for resistance to Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus coffeae and Radopholus similis. Australasian Plant Pathology 34(3):299-309.
26. Alan Seberry, J. and Harris, D.R. 1998. Postharvest evaluation of 'FHIA-01' and other new banana varieties for subtropical Australia. p.537-546. In: Galán Saúco, V. (ed.). Proceedings of First International Symposium on Banana in the Subtropics, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife (ESP), 1997/11/10-14. Acta Horticulturae 490. ISHS, Leuven (BEL).

See also on this website

Musapedia pages on improved materials:
Accession-level information on FHIA-01 and online ordering from MGIS